Perspectives

Perspectives on Express Script’s “Digital Health Formulary”

June 27, 2019

Cigna Corp.’s Express Script PBM expects to introduce the industry’s first stand-alone “digital health formulary” in 2020, the company said May 16. It intends to use a uniform review process to ensure the safety and quality of apps and devices on the market for diabetes, cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions and behavioral health, AIS Health reported.

Cigna Corp.’s Express Script PBM expects to introduce the industry’s first stand-alone “digital health formulary” in 2020, the company said May 16. It intends to use a uniform review process to ensure the safety and quality of apps and devices on the market for diabetes, cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions and behavioral health, AIS Health reported.

By creating a digital formulary, Express Scripts “is using old hat methods to manage these new digital health solutions much like they do on brand and generic drugs or other therapies via utilization management,” says Nathan Ray, senior principal in business consulting firm West Monroe Partners’ health care and life sciences practice.

“A formulary allows the administrator to steer demand and control reimbursement for the use of preferred solutions,” Ray says. “Management via formulary has its upsides: It can reduce prices paid by payers and consumers.”

Moreover, digital health might be only the first step as PBMs ask what else they can put through their channel, says Ashraf Shehata, a principal in KPMG’s health care life sciences advisory practice and the firm’s Global Healthcare Center of Excellence.

Dea Belazi, Pharm.D., president and CEO of AscellaHealth, says it makes sense to think of the formulary pharmacy and therapeutics process as a coordinated effort to evaluate the merits of drugs or technologies — or for broader applications.

Yet “at the end of the day, how is this any different than what they’re doing today?” he asks. “Is there going to be an impact in either cost or outcomes in this new digital formulary process? Are numbers going to be different? It would be amazing” if there were improvements.

Perspectives on CMS’s Drug Pricing Proposals

June 13, 2019

When CMS issued the final rule on Medicare Advantage and Part D drug pricing on May 16, the agency touted its policy changes as ensuring consumers get greater transparency into the cost of Part D prescription drugs and enabling MA plans to negotiate better prices for physician-administered medicines in Part C. Yet, after receiving 4,000-plus comments related to pharmacy price concessions on negotiated price, CMS held back, saying it won’t implement this policy for 2020 — or follow through on proposed exceptions to Part D protected drug classes, AIS Health reported.

When CMS issued the final rule on Medicare Advantage and Part D drug pricing on May 16, the agency touted its policy changes as ensuring consumers get greater transparency into the cost of Part D prescription drugs and enabling MA plans to negotiate better prices for physician-administered medicines in Part C. Yet, after receiving 4,000-plus comments related to pharmacy price concessions on negotiated price, CMS held back, saying it won’t implement this policy for 2020 — or follow through on proposed exceptions to Part D protected drug classes, AIS Health reported.

Among numerous provisions, CMS’s final rule implements the statutory prohibition against gag clauses in pharmacy contracts, barring Part D plans from penalizing pharmacies that disclose a lower cash price to enrollees. But the agency decided against implementing a policy redefining negotiated price as the lowest possible, baseline payment to pharmacies.

Leerink analyst Ana Gupte sees industry winners across the board. CMS “did not follow through on its proposal to exclude certain protected drug classes, offering a win for the biopharma industry,” she said in a May 17 note. “Managed Care and PBMs also garnered a win as CMS did not follow through on the proposals to pass through pharmacy pricing concessions in the form of DIR [direct and indirect remuneration] fees to patients through reduced cost sharing.”

Dea Belazi, Pharm.D., president and CEO of AscellaHealth, offers a blunter assessment. “I think the final Part D rule is more rhetoric than anything,” he tells AIS Health.

As for negotiated price, “They’re not ready to do anything on pricing at this point,” Belazi says. “I think CMS, with HHS, opened up a Pandora’s box and realized this is not as easy as it seems and they need more time.”

Perspectives on Diabetic Drug’s Kidney Benefit

May 30, 2019

The potential use of Invokana (canagliflozin) for chronic kidney disease as well as type 2 diabetes, its current indicated use, recently attracted national headlines. If Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s supplemental indication for its medication is approved by the FDA, “it would be the first new treatment for diabetic kidney disease in decades,” the National Kidney Foundation said.

The potential use of Invokana (canagliflozin) for chronic kidney disease as well as type 2 diabetes, its current indicated use, recently attracted national headlines. If Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s supplemental indication for its medication is approved by the FDA, “it would be the first new treatment for diabetic kidney disease in decades,” the National Kidney Foundation said.

The kidney foundation points out that diabetes is a key risk factor for chronic kidney disease. The group says it anticipates strong uptake of Invokana by clinicians and payers facing “high costs and management challenges” in treating advanced kidney disease in people with type 2 diabetes, AIS Health reported.

But Mesfin Tegenu, R.Ph., president of PerformRx, LLC, doesn’t expect a major impact on treatment. That’s because Invokana joins Jardiance (empagliflozin) and Farxiga (dapagliflozin), among others, in a class of type 2 diabetes medications called SGLT2 inhibitors — and some rival products already provide similar benefits, he says.

In 2018, the American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes issued a consensus statement that “already recommends Jardiance in diabetic CKD [i.e., chronic kidney disease] patients due to the renal benefit,” Tegenu adds.

In the recently announced results for Invokana’s CREDENCE study, Invokana was found to reduce the risk of dialysis or the need for a kidney transplant, which Tegenu says is “good news for plan payers and patients since in addition cardiovascular benefits were also found.”

“However,” he adds, “[cardiovascular] benefits have been known for at least a year and guidelines already recommend these drugs in [chronic kidney disease] patients.”

Perspectives on BioScrip/Option Care Deal

May 16, 2019

Two of the country’s largest independent infusion services providers recently unveiled that they have entered into a merger agreement. After coming together, BioScrip, Inc. and Option Care Enterprises, Inc. would be the No. 2 home/alternate site infusion provider in the United States, AIS Health reported.

Two of the country’s largest independent infusion services providers recently unveiled that they have entered into a merger agreement. After coming together, BioScrip, Inc. and Option Care Enterprises, Inc. would be the No. 2 home/alternate site infusion provider in the United States, AIS Health reported.

Under the terms of the deal, publicly traded BioScrip would issue new shares to Madison Dearborn Partners, LLC and Walgreens Boots Alliance, Inc., which are the Option Care shareholders, giving them 80% of BioScrip’s stock, with current BioScrip shareholders holding the remaining 20%. The new company would be publicly traded.

“Scale is critical to succeed in home infusion/alternate site services,” says Bill Sullivan, principal consultant for Specialty Pharmacy Solutions LLC. “Opportunity to build scale…is important for payer access and better cost-of-goods pricing through wholesalers and in some cases direct with manufacturers.”

“From the pharma side, I’m not going to say it’s easy from a distribution standpoint, but with limited-distribution drugs…and an entity that covers 96% of the U.S. population, it’s easy for a company to pick a partner like this,” says Pat Clifford, managing director at The Braff Group.

“Considering that the home/site infusion industry has been growing at two to three times the rate of U.S. GDP [i.e., gross domestic product], we think it is no surprise that a national player would emerge eventually,” remarks Bill Bolding, an analyst at Provident.

Benefits of the deal include the fact that “integrating patient care from outpatient through the home setting has the potential to improve outcomes significantly, all while minimizing the traditional waste/cost that comes with the patient transition,” Bolding tells AIS Health.

While cost cutting is an additional benefit of the arrangement, it also may prove to be a challenge, says Clifford. “In markets with duplicate locations,” they would be able to combine them, “but if they are overlapping a lot, some locations may need to be shut down.”

Another potential challenge is the fact that “no individual player has controlled 10%-25% [of the] infusion market to date, depending on how you measure the space,” says Bolding. “There is no playbook that this executive team can copy to merge site and home infusion at this scale, and as always, reimbursement risk should be considered.”

Perspectives on New Postpartum Depression Drug

May 2, 2019

The FDA’s recent approval of the first medication specifically aimed at treating postpartum depression is drawing a favorable response from clinicians, while payers could face challenges.

The FDA’s recent approval of the first medication specifically aimed at treating postpartum depression is drawing a favorable response from clinicians, while payers could face challenges.

PBM executives tell AIS Health that the postpartum depression drug, Zulresso (brexanolone) injection, is likely to be covered under the medical, not the pharmacy, side of the benefit.

Zulresso’s initial U.S. list price “will be $7,450 per vial, resulting in a projected average course of therapy cost of $34,000 per patient before discounts,” says Alexis Smith, a spokesperson for Zulresso’s manufacturer, Sage Therapeutics, Inc.

Dea Belazi, Pharm.D., president and CEO of AscellaHealth, says as the medication must be administered as a 60-hour continuous intravenous infusion, it’s a challenge for a new mother to be hospitalized in an approved facility for two-and-a-half days for an IV infusion. Moreover, there is “the fact that there are possible extensive side effects and the data on its [Zulresso’s] effectiveness [are] moderately better than placebo. The cost will also play a barrier,” he adds.

Camille Hoffman, M.D., associate professor in the University of Colorado’s Department of Ob/Gyn, describes the newly approved drug as “a breakthrough medication” that “rapidly improves postpartum depression out to, at least, 30 days following the one-time treatment.”

She acknowledges that the need to administer Zulresso via a 60-hour IV drip and its restricted distribution might present challenges. However, she says, “I hope that payers will consider these potential barriers in light of how quickly it acts to help women with severe postpartum depression.”

Perspectives on Insulin Management

April 18, 2019

Amid increasing public scrutiny of rising insulin prices, some health insurers are taking matters into their own hands to help their diabetic members afford the lifesaving medications, AIS Health reported.

Amid increasing public scrutiny of rising insulin prices, some health insurers are taking matters into their own hands to help their diabetic members afford the lifesaving medications, AIS Health reported.

At the integrated health system HealthPartners, the members who are hardest hit by rising insulin prices are those in high-deductible health plans, says Young Fried, vice president of pharmacy plan services. But she says insulin affordability is also an issue for Medicare members who are in the Part D “doughnut hole.”

One tactic that the organization’s health plan deploys to ease the burden on members is a policy called “plan pay the difference,” Fried says. If a brand drug becomes cheaper than the generic version after rebates, “we would actually have the member pay the generic copay instead of the brand, and then we would reimburse the pharmacy the brand cost, so that they’re made whole as well,” she says.

At Geisinger Health Plan, Medicare enrollees are the ones who have the most trouble paying for their insulin, according to Jamie Miller, the health plan’s system director of managed care pharmacy. Overall, Geisinger saw its spending in the diabetes drug class rise 13.8% between 2017 and 2018, she adds.

As Geisinger works out what it wants its Medicare benefit to look like in 2020, Miller says one goal is to make insulin more affordable for its senior members. Thus, the health plan is considering adding a sixth, “zero-dollar” tier to its Part D formulary where it would put insulin and select other drugs.